Notes on Vietnam POW’s:
Source: (in APA bibliography format)
Hay, J. (2004). Prisoners of War (POWs). In The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of The Vietnam War (Vol. 1, pp. 235-236). San Diego: Greenhaven Press. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from galegroup.com
- 760 Am. servicemen were taken prisoner of war (POW) by North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces
- Received brutal treatment that violated the Geneva Convention requirements of 1949.
- N. Vietnamese took the position that because there was no formal declaration of war that Am captives should be treated as criminal and “international gangsters”
- POWs endured physical and psychological hardships: beatings, torture, denial of medical treatment, prolonged isolation, forced confessions
- However, many Am POWs showed remarkable courage and resilience while in captivity--devised ingenious communication codes, average age of POWs was older than the avg. serviceman. Many were aviators who had undergone more advanced training.
- From ‘64 to ‘69, POW were detained in several camps scattered throughout No. Vietnam, So. Vietnam and Laos.
- ‘68 to ‘72 POWs moved to 13 camps in No. Vietnam (around city of Hanoi)
- ‘70 to ‘72 POWs consolidated to 5 main camps
- Terms of 1972 diplomatic agreement for the release of POWs called for them to be released in waves--most released during Feb-April 1973 (Operation Homecoming)
- Total of 144 POWs are known to have died in captivity