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BHS_CITATION GUIDE: APA - How to Make Source Entries for a Reference Page

*A Note about "Sentence Case" Capitalization of Titles in APA Format

Note: APA uses "sentence case" capitalization of titles in the Reference list.  Therefore, only the first letter of the title (and proper nouns which are normally capitalized in English) will be capitalized.  This is a difference from what you have learned about capitalizing titles in Standard English!

Standard English:  For Whom the Bell Tolls

Sentence Case (APA):  For whom the bell tolls

 

Standard English:  A Guide to Minnesota State Parks

Sentence Case (APA):  A guide to Minnesota state parks  [note:  Minnesota is a proper noun]

Basic Format for a Book

Basic Format for Books

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/8/

 

Basic Format of Reference List Periodical entry

Basic Form

APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized. If a DOI has been assigned to the article that you are using, you should include this after the page numbers for the article. If no DOI has been assigned and you are accessing the periodical online, use the URL of the website from which you are retrieving the periodical. 

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy 

From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/7/

Online Periodical (Including Articles Accessed from Library Databases)

Article From an Online Periodical (Journal, Magazine)

Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved from 
http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving

From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/

Article in a Newspaper

Article in a Newspaper

Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4.

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

Online Newspaper

Newspaper Article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from 
http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com

From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/7/

Article in a (Print) Journal

Article in (Print) Journal Paginated by Volume

Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/7

Online Journal - see Online periodical

Article in a (Print) Magazine

Article in a (Print) Magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/7/


Online Magazine - see Online Periodical

One Author

Single Author

Last name first, followed by author initials.

Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development.Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.


From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/6/

Two Authors

Two Authors

List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."

Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.

From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/6/

Three - Seven authors

Three to Seven Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/6/

Organization as Author

Organization as Author

American Psychological Association. (2003).

From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/6/

Unknown Author

Unknown Author

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 1993).

From Purdue OWL's APA Formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/6/

Reference List

Website

How to Cite a Website in APA

Structure:

Last, F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL

Examples:

Satalkar, B. (2010, July 15). Water aerobics. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com

Cain, K. (2012, June 29). The Negative effects of Facebook on communication.Social Media Today RSS. Retrieved from http://socialmediatoday.com

From EasyBib: How to cite a website in APA: http://www.easybib.com/reference/guide/apa/website

 

Website material with no author, date, year or page number?

How do you cite website material that has no author, no year, and no page numbers?

Because the material does not include page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation (from pp. 170–171 of the Publication Manual):

  • A paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you could count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document.
  • An overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section.
  • A short title in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full.

Because there is no date and no author, your text citation would include the title (or short title) "n.d." for no date, and paragraph number (e.g., "Heuristic," n.d., para. 1). The entry in the reference list might look something like this:

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic

From APA Style: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-website-material.aspx