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BHS_SOCIAL STUDIES 10 HISTORY DAY PROJECT: 5. Synthesize - Source Citation

Your Responsibility as a Researcher

When you use information from other sources in your project, you need to give proper credit to those sources.   BHS students are asked to use MLA style documentation.

You have two basic responsibilities:

1.  In-text citations

Give the author (if there is one) or title (if no author is given) of the source in parentheses right after the information that comes from that source.

2.  Works Cited page

List all the sources you used in your project. Typically this appears at the end of your paper. Name the page "Works Cited".  Entries must follow MLA style (use a citation engine like BIBME or CITATION MACHINE to format the entries), and the entire list should be in alphabetical order.

Definition & Format

Annotated Bibliography

bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, Web sites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for researching a topic. An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation. Therefore, an annotated bibliography includes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources.

Your annotations may do one or more of the following.

  • Summarize: Some annotations merely summarize the source. What are the main arguments? What is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered? If someone asked what this article/book is about, what would you say? The length of your annotations will determine how detailed your summary is.
  • Assess: After summarizing a source, it may be helpful to evaluate it. Is it a useful source? How does it compare with other sources in your bibliography? Is the information reliable? Is this source biased or objective? What is the goal of this source?
  • Reflect: Once you've summarized and assessed a source, you need to ask how it fits into your research. Was this source helpful to you? How does it help you shape your argument? How can you use this source in your research project? Has it changed how you think about your topic?


The bibliographic information: The bibliographic information of the source (the title, author, publisher, date, etc.) will be written in MLA format.

The annotations: The annotations for each source are written in paragraph form. The lengths of the annotations can vary significantly from a couple of sentences to a couple of pages. The length will depend on the purpose. If you're just writing summaries of your sources, the annotations may not be very long (2-3 sentences).

Other Resources

15. Personal Interview

Interviewee’s last name, First name. Personal interview. Date of interview.

Mhiripiri, Rhoda. Personal interview. 7 September 2009.

16. Film, Video, DVD Recording

Title of Film, Video, or DVD. Dir. Name of director. Distributor, Year of Release. Medium.

Twilight. Dir. Catherine Hardwicke. Summit Entertainment, 2009. DVD.

**Please note that you may wish to include other information that you feel is important between the title and the medium such as names of key performers, the writer(s), and/or the producer.

Twilight. Dir. Catherine Hardwicke. Perf. Robert Pattinson and Kristen Stewart. Screenplay Melissa Rosenberg. Book Stephenie Meyer. Summit

            Entertainment, 2009. DVD.

 17. Television or Radio Program

“Title of Segment.” Name of Program. Producer. TV Station, Place of publication. Date. Medium.

“Grinnan Family.” Extreme Makeover: Home Edition. Prod. Tom Forman. ABC. 28 August 2005.Television. 


Individual Bibliography & Source Citation



Avoid plagiarizing!   Plagiarism is defined by the Encarta World English Dictionary as “something copied from somebody else’s work, or somebody else’s idea that somebody presents as his or her own”. 

 A bibliography is a list of all the sources you used to find your information


  1. Cite all sources based on the format below
  2. Your bibliography should be alphabetized by author’s last name.  If you are unable to locate an author from a source, be sure that it is reliable, then insert the source into your bibliography based on its title.
  3. Correct format used (see below)
  4. Annotations present for each source and done correctly
  5. Due the day that you present!!

 Source Evaluation:

  1. Purpose:

            ·         Purpose of author or creator in writing or composing the work

  1. Value: 

            ·         How was the source valuable to you as researcher?  How does the origin of the source (author/creator and his/her background, date, type of                      source) add to its value for you as the researcher?

  1. Limitation:  

            ·         How is the source limited to you as the researcher? How does the origin of the source limit its credibility? (think about the origin here again                      (author/creator and his/her background, date, type of source).  You may need to “google” the author or creator.  

Class textbook—we will do this together in class:


Source Evaluation:

o   Origin:

o   Purpose:

o   Value:

o   Limitation:

How to Cite Sources [Citations]

*Use MLA on 



            Author’s last name, first name, Title  (Place of press company: 

                  Name of press company, year), page #. Print


            Author of article, “title of article/picture”,

                  name of web site, date, web address (e.g. http). Web

Electronic database:

            Author, “Title of article,” Title of database (e.g. Electronic Library, Decades…)


            Artist, Title, year

Video Clip:

             Title & year


             Name of person, interviewed by (name interviewer), date of interview


             Author, “Title of Article,” name of newspaper or magazine, page #/section, date